(Also specific references can be found on individual pages.)

National Organization for Rare Disorders NORD -Pheochromocytoma

Society of Surgical Oncology; Doherty GM, Olson JA, Frisella MM, Lairmore TC, Wells SA, Jr, Norton JA. Lethality of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 World J Surg 1998; 22:581-6.

Society of Surgical Oncology; Mulligan LM, Eng C, Healey CS, Clayton D, Kwok JB, Gardner E, Ponder MA, Frilling A, Jackson CE, Lehnert H et al. Specific mutations of the RET proto-oncogene are related to disease phenotype in MEN 2A and FMTC. Nature Genetics 1994;6:70-74.

National Organization for Rare Disorders NORD -Von Hippel Lindau Disease

OnlineMedinfo:Pheochromocytoma – Symptoms and Treatment

The Doctor’s Doctor:Pheochromocytoma

Lenders J.W.M., K. Pacak, M.M. Walther, W.M. Linehan, M. Mannelli, P. Friberg, H.R. Keiser, D.S. Goldstein and G. Eisenhofer. Biochemical diagnosis of pheochromocytoma: Which test is best? Journal of the American Medical Association 287: 1427-1434, 2002.

Eisenhofer, G.; Lenders, J.W.M.; Linehan, W.M.; Walther, M.M.; Goldstein, D.S.; Keiser, H.R. “Plasma normetanephrine and metanephrine for detecting pheochromocytoma in Von Hippel-Lindau disease and multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2.” N.E.J.M. 340:24 (1999) 1872-1879.

Eisenhofer, G; Walther, W.M., et al, “Plasma Metanephrines: Novel and Cost Effective Test for Pheochromocytoma,” Proceedings of the 1st International Meeting on Adrenal Diseases, Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, September 7, 1999.

Biochemical Diagnosis of Pheochromocytoma: Graeme Eisenhofer Ph.D. and Karel Pacak M.D. Ph.D. National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland; 50 listed references for this article can be found at page end link: biodiag references.

Reference: Email correspondence between Dr. Graeme Eisenhofer of the NIH and Mary Peebels of the Pheochromocytoma Support Group. Stress Triggering Pheo? Date: 7/13/00.

81st Annual Meeting of the Endocrine Society, San Diego, California, June 15, 1999, and published in the New England Journal of Medicine, June 17, 1999 as an article authored by G. Eisenhofer, J.W.M. Lenders, W.M. Linehan, M.M. Walther, D.S. Goldstein and H.R. Keiser.

National Institute on Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) and the NIH Office of Medical Applications of Research (OMAR)

Maranchie, J. K., Walther, M. M., and Linehan, W. M. Early Identification of Patients with von Hippel Lindau Disease at Risk for Pheochromocytoma. Current Urology Reports, 2001.

Pacak, K. G. Eisenhofer, and I. Ilias. Diagnostic imaging of pheochromocytoma. Frontiers of Hormone Research 31:107-120, 2004. PMID: 14674307

Permission given by Dr. Graeme Eisenhofer for use of information at Study; Eisenhofer, G

Dr. Samuel J. Mann, Associate Professor of Clinical Medicine, The New York Presbyterian Hospital/Weill Cornell Medical Center, New York City: A study to test a new treatment for paroxysmal (episodic) hypertension.

CenterWatch Clinical Trials Listing:

Goldstein, D.S. 1995. Stress, Catecholamines, and Cardiovascular Disease. Oxford University Press, New York.

Sinclair D, Shenkin A, Lorimer AR. 1991 Normal catecholamine production in a patient with a paroxysmally secreting phaeochromocytoma. Ann Clin Biochem. 28:417-419.

Stewart MF, Reed P, Weinkove C, Moriarty KJ, Ralston AJ. 1993 Biochemical diagnosis of phaeochromocytoma: two instructive case reports. J Clin Pathol. 46:280-282.

Bravo EL. 1994 Evolving concepts in the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of pheochromocytoma. Endocr Rev. 15:356-368.

Lenders JW, Keiser HR, Goldstein DS, et al. 1995 Plasma metanephrines in the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma. Ann Intern Med. 123:101-109.

Shawar L, Svec F. 1996 Pheochromocytoma with elevated metanephrines as the only biochemical finding. J La State Med Soc. 148:535-538.

Eisenhofer G, Goldstein DS, Stull R, Ropchak TG, Keiser HR, Kopin IJ. 1987 Dihydroxyphenylglycol and dihydroxymandelic acid during intravenous infusions of noradrenaline. Clin Sci. 73:123-125.

Eriksson BM, Persson BA. 1987 Liquid chromatographic method for the determination of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethylene glycol and 3,4-dihydroxymandelic acid in plasma. J Chromatogr. 386:1-9.

Kawamura M, Kopin IJ, Kador PF, Sato S, Tjurmina O, Eisenhofer G. 1997 Effects of aldehyde/aldose reductase inhibition on neuronal metabolism of norepinephrine. J Auton Nerv Syst. 66:145-148.

Eisenhofer G, Pecorella W, Pacak K, Hooper D, Kopin IJ, Goldstein DS. 1994 The neuronal and extraneuronal origins of plasma 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol in rats. J Auton Nerv Syst. 50:93-107.

Eisenhofer G, Friberg P, Rundqvist B, et al. 1996 Cardiac sympathetic nerve function in congestive heart failure. Circulation. 93:1667-1676.

Blombery PA, Kopin IJ, Gordon EK, Markey SP, Ebert MH. 1980 Conversion of MHPG to vanillylmandelic acid. Implications for the importance of urinary MHPG. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 37:1095-1098.

Eisenhofer G, Aneman A, Hooper D, Rundqvist B, Friberg P. 1996 Mesenteric organ production, hepatic metabolism, and renal elimination of norepinephrine and its metabolites in humans. J Neurochem. 66:1565-1573.

Eisenhofer G, Goldstein DS, Kopin IJ. 1989 Plasma dihydroxyphenylglycol for estimation of noradrenaline neuronal reuptake in the sympathetic nervous system in vivo. Clin Sci. 76:171-182.

Eisenhofer G, Esler MD, Meredith IT, et al. 1992 Sympathetic nervous function in human heart as assessed by cardiac spillovers of dihydroxyphenylglycol and norepinephrine. Circulation. 85:1775-1785.

Eisenhofer G. 1994 Plasma normetanephrine for examination of extraneuronal uptake and metabolism of noradrenaline in rats. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 349:259-269.

Eisenhofer G, Rundqvist B, Friberg P. 1998 Determinants of cardiac tyrosine hydroxylase activity during exercise-induced sympathetic activation in humans. Am J Physiol. 43:R626-R634.

Lenders JWM, Willemsen JJ, Beissel T, Kloppenborg PWC, Thien T, Benrad TJ. 1992 Value of the plasma norepinephrine/3,4-dihydroxyphenylglycol ratio for the diagnosis of pheochromoctyoma. Am J Med. 92;147-152.

Hamilton BP, Landsberg L, Levine RJ. 1978 Measurement of urinary epinephrine in screening for pheochromocytoma in multiple endocrine neoplasia type II. Am J Med. 65:1027-1032.

Vistelle R, Grulet H, Gibold C, et al. 1991 High permanent plasma adrenaline levels: a marker of adrenal medullary disease in medullary thyroid carcinoma. Clin Endocrinol. 34:133-138.

Graefe KH, Henseling M. 1983 Neuronal and extraneuronal uptake and metabolism of catecholamines. Gen Pharmacol. 14:27-33.

Eisenhofer G, Goldstein DS, Ropchak TG, Nguyen HQ, Keiser HR, Kopin IJ. 1988 Source and physiological significance of plasma 3,4-dihydroxyphenylglycol and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol. J Auton Nerv Syst. 24:1-14.

Goldstein DS, Eisenhofer G, Stull R, Folio CJ, Keiser HR, Kopin IJ. 1988 Plasma dihydroxyphenylglycol and the intraneuronal disposition of norepinephrine in humans. J Clin Invest. 81:213-220.

Goldstein DS, Eisenhofer G, Stull R, Folio CJ, Keiser HR, Kopin IJ. 1988 Plasma dihydroxyphenylglycol and the intraneuronal disposition of norepinephrine in humans. J Clin Invest. 81:213-220.

Brown M. 1984 Simultaneous assay of noradrenaline and its deaminated metabolite, dihydroxyphenylglycol, in plasma: a simplified approach to the exclusion of pheochromocytoma in patients with borderline elevation of plasma noradrenaline concentration. Eur J Clin Invest. 14:67-72.

Duncan MW, Compton P, Lazarus L, Smythe GA. 1988 Measurement of norepinephrine and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylglycol in urine and plasma for the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma. N Engl J Med. 319:136-142.

Atuk NO, Hanks JB, Weltman J, Bogdonoff DL, Boyd DG, Vance ML. 1994 Circulating dihydroxyphenylglycol and norepinephrine concentrations during sympathetic nervous system activation in patients with pheochromocytoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 79:1609-1614.

Nakada T, Sasagawa I, Kubota Y, Suzuki H, Ishigooka M, Watanabe M. 1996 Dihydroxyphenylglycol in pheochromocytoma: its diagnostic use for norepinephrine dominant tumor. J Urol. 155:14-18.

Eisenhofer G, Esler MD, Meredith IT, Ferrier C, Lambert G, Jennings G. 1991 Neuronal re-uptake of noradrenaline by sympathetic nerves in humans. Clin Sci (Colch). 80:257-263.

Esler MD, Wallin G, Dorward PK, et al. 1991 Effects of desipramine on sympathetic nerve firing and norepinephrine spillover to plasma in humans. Am J Physiol. 260:R817-R823.

Mardh G, Luehr CA, Vallee BL. 1985 Human class I alcohol dehydrogenases catalyze the oxidation of glycols in the metabolism of norepinephrine. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 82:4979-4982.

Peaston RT, Lai LC. 1993 Biochemical detection of phaechromocytoma: Should we still be measuring urinary HMMA? J Clin Pathol. 46:734-737.

Neumann HP, Berger DP, Sigmund G, et al. 1993 Pheochromocytomas, multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2, and von Hippel-Lindau disease. N Engl J Med. 329:1531-1538.

Tormey WP, FitzGerald RJ. 1995 Phaeochromocytoma–a laboratory experience. Ir J Med Sci. 164:142-145.

Mornex R, Peyrin L. 1996 The biological diagnosis of pheochromocytoma. Bull Mem Acad R Med Belg. 151:269-277.

Peaston RT, Lennard TW, Lai LC. 1996 Overnight excretion of urinary catecholamines and metabolites in the detection of pheochromocytoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 81:1378-1384.

Roth JA. 1992 Membrane-bound catechol-O-methyltransferase: a reevaluation of its role in the O-methylation of the catecholamine neurotransmitters. Rev Physiol Biochem Pharmacol. 120:1-29.

Aprill BS, Drake AJ, Lasseter DH, Shakir KM. 1994 Silent adrenal nodules in von Hippel-Lindau disease suggest pheochromocytoma. Ann Intern Med. 120:485-487.

Box JC, Braithwaite MD, Duncan T, Lucas G. 1997 Pheochromocytoma, chronic renal insufficiency, and hemodialysis: a combination leading to a diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma. Am Surg. 63:314-316.

Lenders JWM, Eisenhofer G, Abeling NGGM, et al. 1996 Specific genetic deficiencies of the A and B isozymes of monoamine oxidase are characterized by distinct neurochemical and clinical phenotypes. J Clin Invest. 97:1010-1019.

Casanova S, Rosenberg-Bourgin M, Farkas D, et al. 1993 Phaeochromocytoma in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 A: survey of 100 cases. Clin Endocrinol. 38:531-537.